Do women and men perceive corruption differently? Data from Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer, which compiles public opinion surveys from approximately 54,000 individuals in 69 countries, suggests that there is a correlation between sex and people's perception of corruption, with women around the world reporting that they perceive higher levels of corruption than men do.
What is notable is that these differences are statistically significant and consistent across most regions. The percentage of women perceiving higher levels of corruption than men is greater for Developed Regions, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) & the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Latin America & Caribbean and East Asia & Pacific. In sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, the results are more mixed. In some cases in these regions, men perceive higher levels of corruption than do women.
The figures show the female-to-male ratio in perceptions of corruption, with green indicating a higher result for women, and red indicating a higher result for men.
Gendered perception differences are most significant in the area of service provision – notably for education, medical services, and utilities. Indeed, one of the more striking results is the ratio of women to men (1.3 to 1) in developed countries that perceive high levels of corruption in education.
In the case of political, judicial and security sector institutions, the numerical difference between male and female perceptions of corruption is small but statistically significant, with women perceiving slightly higher levels of corruption than men, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa.
Similarly, in the case of institutions related to the market, women seem to have higher perceptions of corruption in most regions and areas, with the exception of tax revenue in South Asia, customs in CEE/CIS and tax, customs and media in sub-Saharan Africa.